Fastenau PS, Shen J, Dunn DW, Perkins SM, Hermann BP, Austin JK. Neuropsychological predictors of academic underachievement in pediatric epilepsy: Moderating roles of demographic, seizure, and psychosocial variables. Epilepsia. 2004 Oct; 45(10): 1261-72.
Department of Psychology, Purdue School of Science, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S.A.
Summary: Purpose: Academic underachievement is common in pediatric epilepsy. Attempts to identify seizure and psychosocial risk factors for underachievement have yielded inconsistent findings, raising the possibility that seizure and psychosocial variables play a complex role in combination with other variables such as neuropsychological functioning. This study cross-validated a neuropsychological measurement model for childhood epilepsy, examined the relation between neuropsychological functioning and academic achievement, and tested the degree to which demographic, seizure, and psychosocial variables moderate that relation. Methods: Children with chronic epilepsy (N = 173; ages 8 to 15 years; 49% girls; 91% white/non-Hispanic; 79% one seizure type; 79% taking one medication; 69% with active seizures) completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Children diagnosed with mental retardation were excluded. Results: Structural equation modeling identified a three-factor measurement model of neuropsychological function: Verbal/Memory/Executive (VME), Rapid Naming/Working Memory (RN/WM), and Psychomotor (PM). VME and RN/WM were strongly related to reading, math, and writing; PM predicted writing only. Family environment moderated the impact of neuropsychological deficits on writing (p lt or = 0.01) and possibly for reading (p = 0.05); neuropsychological deficits had a smaller impact on achievement for children in supportive/organized homes compared with children in unsupportive/disorganized homes. Conclusions: These findings lend partial support for our theoretical model showing direct effects of neuropsychological function on achievement and the moderating role of family factors. This study suggests that a subgroup of children with epilepsy (those who have not only neuropsychological deficits but also disorganized/unsupportive home environments) are particularly at risk for adverse academic outcomes. Implications for intervention are discussed.
PMID: 15461681 [PubMed - in process]